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Clinical Assessment

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®-2

1989, 2001 (rev.), up- dated 2003 and 2009 | Butcher, James N., Graham, John R., Ben-Porath, Yossef S., Tellegen, Auke, Dahlstrom, W. Grant, Kaemmer, Beverly

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®-2

The most widely used and researched test of adult psychopathology that helps you diagnose mental disorders and develop effective treatment strategies

Ages / Grades 18 Years and Older
Administration Setting 60–90 Minutes (567 True/False Items)
Qualification Level C


The MMPI instruments have an unparalleled legacy of extensive research and widespread use. The original MMPI, released in 1943, was revised and then published as the MMPI–2 in 1989.

Used by clinicians to assist with the diagnosis of mental disorders and the selection of appropriate treatment methods, the MMPI–2 test continues to help meet the assessment needs of mental health professionals in an ever-changing environment.

The MMPI–2 test's contemporary normative sample and extensive research base make it the gold-standard in assessment for a wide variety of settings. The test can be used to help:

  • Assess major symptoms of social and personal maladjustment
  • Identify suitable candidates for high-risk public safety positions
  • Support classification, treatment, and management decisions in criminal justice and correctional settings
  • Give a strong empirical foundation for a clinician's expert testimony
  • Assess medical patients and design effective treatment strategies, including chronic pain management
  • Evaluate participants in substance abuse programs and select appropriate treatment approaches
  • Support college and career counselling recommendations
  • Provide valuable insight for marriage and family counselling

Key Features

  • Cost-effective and comprehensive scoring–The Extended Score Report provides a scoring option that is both cost-efficient and comprehensive. It provides all standard scales, including the RC Scales.
  • Descriptive and diagnostic information relevant to today's clients– Tailored reports present interpretive information for specific settings to help meet a wide range of needs
  • Representative normative sample–A community sample of adult men and women consists of 1,138 males and 1,462 females between the ages of 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities within the U.S.
  • Flexible administration and scoring–The test can be administered in several formats: computer, CD, or paper-and-pencil. To help meet the needs of more individuals, the MMPI-2 test can be administered in English, Spanish, Hmong, and French for Canada.

MMPI–2 Test Monographs

The eight Test Monographs in this series include information beyond what is available in the manual, such as: the rationale for creating new scales and other new developments, information on how these scales or features were developed, detailed psychometric data, interpretive guidelines, case examples, and more.

Publisher Statement

The University of Minnesota Press is the publisher of the MMPI® instruments, representing the Regents of the University of Minnesota which hold copyright on the instruments. As publisher, the Press, working with its consulting board, is responsible for the substantive development of the tests, including any revisions to them. The University exclusively licenses Pearson to produce, market, and sell the MMPI test products and to offer scoring and interpretive services.


Permissions and Research

For more information on permissions and research opportunities with the MMPI tests, please visit or contact:

University of Minnesota Press, Test Division,
111 Third Avenue South, Suite 290,
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55401-2520

Phone: 612.627.1964, Fax: 612.627.1980


Validity Scales ? Cannot Say (reported as a raw score only, not plotted)
VRIN Variable Response Inconsistency
TRIN True Response Inconsistency
F Infrequency
FB Back F
FP Infrequency-Psychopathology
FBS Symptom Validity Scale1
L Lie
K Correction
S Superlative Self-Presentation
Superlative Self-Presentation Subscales2 S1 Beliefs in Human Goodness
S2 Serenity
S3 Contentment with Life
S4 Patience/Denial of Irritability
S5 Denial of Moral Flaws
Clinical Scales 1 Hs Hypochondriasis
2 D Depression
3 Hy Hysteria
4 Pd Psychopathic Deviate
5 Mf Masculinity-Femininity
6 Pa Paranoia
7 Pt Psychasthenia
8 Sc Schizophrenia
9 Ma Hypomania
0 Si Social Introversion
RC (Restructured Clinical) Scales3 RCd dem Demoralization
RC1 som Somatic Complaints
RC2 lpe Low Positive Emotions
RC3 cyn Cynicism
RC4 asb Antisocial Behaviour
RC6 per Ideas of Persecution
RC7 dne Dysfunctional Negative Emotions
RC8 abx Aberrant Experiences
RC9 hpm Hypomanic Activation
Clinical Subscales
Harris-Lingoes Subscales
D1 Subjective Depression
D2 Psychomotor Retardation
D3 Physical Malfunctioning
D4 Mental Dullness
D5 Brooding
Hy1 Denial of Social Anxiety
Hy2 Need for Affection
Hy3 Lassitude-Malaise
Hy4 Somatic Complaints
Hy5 Inhibition of Aggression
Pd1 Familial Discord
Pd2 Authority Problems
Pd3 Social Imperturbability
Pd4 Social Alienation
Pd5 Self-Alienation
Pa1 Persecutory Ideas
Pa2 Poignancy
Pa3 Naiveté
Sc1 Social Alienation
Sc2 Emotional Alienation
Sc3 Lack of Ego Mastery—Cognitive
Sc4 Lack of Ego Mastery—Conative
Sc5 Lack of Ego Mastery—Defective Inhibition
Sc6 Bizarre Sensory Experiences
Ma1 Amorality
Ma2 Psychomotor Acceleration
Ma3 Imperturbability
Ma4 Ego Inflation
Social Introversion Subscales Si1 Shyness/Self-Consciousness
Si2 Social Avoidance
Si3 Alienation—Self and Others
Content Scales ANX Anxiety
FRS Fears
OBS Obsessiveness
DEP Depression
HEA Health Concerns
BIZ Bizarre Mentation
ANG Anger
CYN Cynicism
ASP Antisocial Practices
TPA Type A
LSE Low Self-Esteem
SOD Social Discomfort
FAM Family Problems
WRK Work Interference
TRT Negative Treatment Indicators
Content Component Scales
Fears Subscales
FRS1 Generalized Fearfulness
FRS2 Multiple Fears
Depression Subscales DEP1 Lack of Drive
DEP2 Dysphoria
DEP3 Self-Depreciation
DEP4 Suicidal Ideation
Health Concerns Subscales HEA1 Gastrointestinal Symptoms
HEA2 Neurological Symptoms
HEA3 General Health Concerns
Bizarre Mentation Subscales BIZ1 Psychotic Symptomatology
BIZ2 Schizotypal Characteristics
Anger Subscales ANG1 Explosive Behaviour
ANG2 Irritability
Cynicism Subscales CYN1 Misanthropic Beliefs
CYN2 Interpersonal Suspiciousness
Antisocial Practices Subscales ASP1 Antisocial Attitudes
ASP2 Antisocial Behavior
Type A Subscales TPA1 Impatience
TPA2 Competitive Drive
Low Self-Esteem Subscales LSE1 Self-Doubt
LSE2 Submissiveness
Social Discomfort SOD1 Introversion
SOD2 Shyness
Family Problems FAM1 Family Discord
FAM2 Familial Alienation
Negative Treatment Indicators TRT1 Low Motivation
TRT2 Inability to Disclose
Supplementary Scales
PSY–5 (Personality Psychopathology Five Scales)
AGGR Aggressiveness
PSYC Psychoticism
DISC Disconstraint
NEGE Negative Emotionality/Neuroticism
INTR Introversion/Low Positive Emotionality
Broad Personality Characteristics A Anxiety
R Repression
Es Ego Strength
Do Dominance
Re Social Responsibility
Generalized Emotional Distress Mt College Maladjustment3
PK Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder—Keane
MDS Marital Distress
Behavioural Dyscontrol Ho Hostility
O–H Overcontrolled Hostility3
MAC–R MacAndrew Alcoholism-Revised
AAS Addiction Admission
APS Addiction Potential
Gender Role GM Gender Role—Masculine3
GF Gender Role—Feminine3
1The FBS is available only in the Extended Score Report.
2The Superlative Self-Presentation Subscales are available only in The Minnesota Report series.
3The RC Scales and Supplementary Scales Mt, O–H, GM, and GF are available only in the Extended Score Report.


Untitled Document

Reports Brief Description Scales Additional Information
Extended Score Report
(View the report.)
Provides raw and T scores for all standard MMPI–2 scales.
  • 9 Validity Scales
  • Clinical Scales
  • RC (Restructured Clinical) Scales
  • Clinical Subscales
  • Content Scales
  • Content Component Scales
  • Supplementary Scales
  • Newly added to the MMPI–2 Extended Score Report and Hand-Scoring materials, the FBS (Symptom Validity Scale) provides information regarding non-credible symptom reporting.
  • Non-K-corrected Validity/Clinical Scales profile
The Minnesota Report: Adult Clinical System—Revised, 4th Edition— Interpretive Report
(View the report.)
Designed for use in comprehensive clinical assessment. Seven setting-specific narrative reports draw upon data from 40,000 mental health cases for efficient diagnostic confirmation and effective treatment planning.
  • 8 Validity Scales
  • Clinical Scales
  • Clinical Subscales
  • Content Scales
  • Content Component Scales
  • Supplementary Scales
  • P-A-I-N Classification
  • Omitted Items
  • Critical Items
The Minnesota Report: Reports for Forensic Settings
(View the report.)
A series of six setting-specific narrative reports that provide empirical support for clinicians who are presenting expert opinions in forensic situations.
  • 8 Validity Scales
  • Clinical Scales
  • Clinical Subscales
  • Content Scales
  • Content Component Scales
  • Supplementary Scales
  • Non-gendered T scores
  • Omitted Items
  • Critical Items
  • Non-gendered T scores
  • Omitted Items
The Minnesota Report: Revised Personnel System, 3rd Edition— Interpretive Report
(View the report.)
A comprehensive, setting-specific narrative report series designed to help identify individuals who may be emotionally unsuited for high-risk, high stress positions. Six occupation-specific reports based on data from 18,000 personnel selection cases.
  • 8 Validity Scales
  • Clinical Scales
  • Clinical Subscales
  • Content Scales
  • Content Component Scales
  • Supplementary Scales
  • Mean Profiles
  • Contemporary Personnel Base Rate Information
  • Possible Employment Problems
  • Content Themes
  • Work Dysfunction Items
  • Non-gendered T scores
  • Omitted Items
The Minnesota Report: Revised Personnel System, 3rd Edition— Adjustment Rating Report
(View the report.)
A convenient, cost-effective option to the Interpretive Report. Presents ratings for five important work-related dimensions in a one-page summary format.
  • 8 Validity Scales
  • Clinical Scales
  • Clinical Subscales
  • Content Scales
  • Content Component Scales
  • Supplementary Scales
  • Mean Profiles
  • Adjustment Ratings
  • Content Themes
  • Work Dysfunction Items
  • Non-gendered T scores
  • Omitted Items
All reports may be scored via our Q Local™ software or mail-in scoring service.
Please see Related Items for complete descriptions of all reports.

On-screen Administration (OSA)

Q-global™ provides OSA capability for this assessment.

For more information, please visit

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Publisher: University of Minnesota Press

Distributor: Pearson

Minimum Reading Level: 5th grade (Lexile average), 4.6 grade (Flesch-Kincaid)

Norm Group: A representative community sample of adult men and women (1,138 males and 1,462 females between the ages of 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities within the U.S.)


29276 MMPI®–2: Test Monograph 1
The MMPI–2 Content Component Scales
29422 MMPI®–2: Test Monograph 5
The MMPI–2 PSY-5 Scales
29427 MMPI®–2: Test Monograph 2
Assessing Readability of the MMPI, MMPI–2 and MMPI–A
29429 MMPI®–2: Test Monograph 3
The MMPI–A Content Component Scales
29430 MMPI®–2: Test Monograph 4
A Critical Item Set for the MMPI–A
29433 MMPI®–2: RC Scales Test Monograph
The MMPI–2 RC (Restructured Clinical) Scales
29453 MMPI®–2: Test Monograph 7
The Non-Gendered Norms for the MMPI–2
29479 MMPI®–2: Test Monograph 8
The MMPI–2 FBS (Symptom Validity) Scale

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